BOILERS AND HEAT RECOVERY STEAM GENERATORS
Design,Applications and Calculations
CRC Press,Boca Raton,Florida,USA: ph:561-994-0555 fax:561-989-9732, web site: http://CRCpress.com
648 pages ISBN 0-8247-0814-8 $ 239
Steam and Power Systems
Heat Recovery Boilers
Emission Control in Boilers and HRSGs
Basic Steam Plant Calculations
Fuels,Combustion and Efficiency of Boilers and Heaters
Fluid Flow,Valve Sizing and Pressure Drop Calculations
Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
Fans,Pumps and Steam Turbines
Appendix 1: A Quiz on Boilers and HRSGs
Appendix 2:Conversion Factors
The book is biased toward thermal and process design aspects of packaged boilers and HRSGs.The emphasis on thermal engineering aspects of steam generators reinforced by hundreds of worked out real life examples pertaining to HRSGs and related systems will be of interest to engineers involved in a broad field of steam generator related activities such as consulting,design,performance evaluation and operation.
During the last three decades I have had the opportunity to design hundreds of package boilers and waste heat boilers for a variety of applications,which are in operation in the US and abroad.
on my review of hundreds of specifications, I feel that consultants,plant
engineers,contractors and decision makers involved in steam plant development
often fail to appreciate some of the important and subtle aspects of design
and performance of steam generators and HRSGs. These are brought out with
theory and examples in this book. To name a few topics...
-does raising gas temperature at economizer help avoid low temperature corrosion if water temperature is below dew point?
-is generating steam more efficient in fired HRSGs or in boilers?
-can surface areas be lower while transferring same or more energy?
-how to select fin configuration? Why superheater should have smaller fin density compared to evaporators or economizers?
-predicting temperature profiles in boilers and HRSGs at various loads
-recent trends in package boiler designs
-how custom designing minimizes operating costs in package boilers
-designing a boiler/ superheaters for operation at different steam pressures
-optimizing temperature profiles in multi-pressure HRSGs
-why steaming is likely in HRSGs and not in steam generators
-specifying steam generators and waste heat boilers
-efficiency of combined cycle & cogeneration plants at various loads
-transient operation of boilers
-why smaller tube size decreases length of fire tube boilers
-inline vs staggered arrangement in bare,finned tube bundles
-conversion of NOx,CO from lb/h to MM Btu basis in boilers,HRSGs
-circulation calculations in fire tube and water tube boilers
-a quiz on boilers and HRSGs and more!
1:Steam and power Systems
Rankine cycle,Kalina cycle,Coal based systems,Combined cycle,Improvements in gas turbines,Effect of load and ambient temperature on HRSG performance,Auxilliary firing,Generating steam efficiently in cogeneration plants,Worked out examples,Improving HRSG performance,Designs with low pinch,approach points,Secondary surfaces such as deaerators,condensate heaters,multiple pressure units, Cheng cycle,Diesel engine heat recovery
2:Heat Recovery Boilers
Classification of waste heat boilers,Water tube vs Fire tube boilers-a comparison,Heat recovery in sulfur plants,sulfuric acid plants and hydrogen plants,Gas turbine HRSGs,Once through,Natural and Forced circulation designs,Incineration applications,Fouling in waste heat boilers,Fire tube and water tube boiler design considerations, Predicting HRSG design and off-design performance,Specifying waste heat boilers
Boiler classification,steam pressure and boiler design,package boilers,water cooled furnaces,custom designed boilers,examples,comparing surface areas,effect of steam pressure on boiler design and performance,boiler furnace design,energy absorbed by furnace,heat flux,fin tip temperature,boiling process,DNB,efficiency calculations,combination firing,burners,fan selection,superheaters,radiant vs convective designs,steam temperature control vs load,design aspects,life estimation,sample calculations,boiler performance on oil/gas at various loads,why economizer does not steam in package boilers,comparison with HRSGs,effect of FGR on boiler performance,relating oxygen in windbox with FGR,soot blowing,water chemistry,carry over,steam purity,drum internals,blow down,fire tube boilers,economizers,air heaters,condensing exchangers,heat pipes,standard boilers,specifying package boilers
4:Emission Control in Boilers and HRSGs
How pollutants are genrated,NOx formation,NOx control methods,post combustion methods,SNCR,SCR,temperature profiles in boilers,HRSGs,ammonia injection methods,SCONOx,Combustion control methods,steam-water injection,burner modifications,furnace modification,flue gas recirculation and excess air ,effect of excess air,FGR on boiler operating costs,CO reduction,SOx removal
Chapter 5:Basic Steam Plant Calculations
34 worked out examples covering basic steam plant calculations,air,gas density calculations,steam quality,purity,blow down,deaeration steam,estimating leakge across dampers,life cycle costing,sound pressure calculation
8:Heat Transfer Equipment Design and Performance
85 examples covering sizing of boilers,superheaters,economizer and air heaters,off-design performance,fire tube boilers,tube wall and fin tip temperature calculations,recent correlations for finned tubes,non-luminous radiation,furnace sizing,inline vs staggered arrangements,optimization of finned surfaces,effect of fin geometry on surface areas,effect of tube side heat transfer on fin selection,natural convection,NTU method,evaluating HRSG temperature profiles,off-design performance of unfired,fired HRSGs,efficiency ,fresh air fired HRSG performance,why economizer steams at HRSG low loads,boiling heat transfer,transient heating of boilers,transient response of evaporator due to change in fuel input,water flow,evaluating HRSG performance from operating data,insulation performance,hot casing design,noise and vibration in heat transfer equipment,various frequencies in tube bundles,effect of gas analysis,pressure on heat transfer and more
6:Fuels,Combustion and Efficiency of Boilers
39 examples covering heating values of fuels,combustion calculations,flue gas analysis,ASME efficiency calculations and simplifed estimates using flue gas analysis,computing various boiler losses,computing dew points of acid vapors,converting emissions of NOx,CO,VOCs from mass to volumetric basis in boilers and HRSGs,relating fuel input with oxygen consumption in turbine exhaust
Chapter 7:Fluid Flow,Valve sizing and pressure drop calculations
36 examples on sizing orifices,flow meters,safety valves,control valves,pressure drop in air,gas,steam,water lines,over bare and finned tube bundles,fire tube and water tube boiler circulation calculations,steam blow off line sizing,flow instability in two-phase flow boiling circuits
Chapter 9:Fans,Pumps and Steam Turbines
25 examples covering performance aspects of fans,pumps and steam turbines,efficiency of cogeneration systems,effect of ambient conditions on boiler fan selection,fan ,pump performance from motor current data